Biotechnology and Plant Disease Management
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No notes for slide. Biotechnology and disease management with special reference to 1. Def: Plant biotechnology can be defined as the use of tissue culture and genetic engineering techniques to produce genetically modified plants that exhibit new or improved desirable characteristics. Plants have been rendered resistant to specific pathogens by genetically engineering transforming them with isolated specific genes that provide resistance against these pathogens known as transgene.
Transformed plants become resistant by coding for enzymes that mobilize other enzymes that carry out numerous defensive functions, such as breaking down the structural compounds of the pathogen. Resistance against bacterial and fungal diseases are sought to be generated by expression of the following transgenes: 1 Genes encoding insensitive target enzymes.
Polyethyleneglycol PEG is commonly used as fusogen.
Plant disease resistance
Potato plants engineered with a chimeric gene encoding two insect proteins exhibiting antimicrobial activities showed significant resistance to the late blight oomycete and their tubers were protected in storage from infection by the soft rot-causing bacteria. Raspberry plants engineered with the gene coding for the common plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein PGIP became resistant to the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea, although the transgene in raspberry, but not in other plants, is expressed only in immature green fruit.
Indica rice varieties IR64, IR72, were co-transformed by microbombardment of embryogenic suspensions with plasmids that contain the Xa21 gene which confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Candidate Genes against Fungal Pathogen: PR- protein like genes encoding chitinases and B-1,3 Glucanases increases expression of individual and multiple PR — proteins in various crops demonstrating enhanced disease resistance against particular pathogens like e.
Nontoxic chemical substances when applied to plants externally, stimulate the plants and elicit the activation of their natural defense mechanisms, i. Latuca sativa against Downy mildew Bremia lactucae 2. No Downloads. Views Total views.
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Biotechnology and Plant Disease Management : Zamir Punja :
Role of biotechnology - gene silencing in plant disease control 1. Speaker M.
Ashajyothi Plant pathology 2. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. Red is most severe clinical , green least severe. Countries not reporting data are coded blue 5. Rice staple food for 2.
What are small RNAs? Mechanism of silencing RNAi is a mechanism for RNA-guided regulation of gene expression in which double-stranded ribonucleic acid dsRNA inhibits the expression of genes with complementary nucleotide sequences. Cullen Nature Genetics S25, Bt and disease resistent rice is commercially planted in China. China is awakening Billion dollars of crop loss is caused by plant diseases worldwide each year.
No single disease management strategy is applicable to all plant pathogens.
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Factors like modern agricultural practices and climate change helped in evolution of new pathogen races. Farmers depend heavily on synthetic pesticides to manage plant diseases. Indiscriminate use of such chemicals has harmed all life forms. Integrated disease management IDM strategies advocate managing plant diseases with minimal use of synthetic pesticides. However, IDM strategies are based on understanding the pathogen etiology, diversity and evolution.
Application of molecular and biotechnological techniques in plant disease management: A review
Genomics of plant pathogens contributed to understanding of pathogen diversity and evolution. Additionally, biotechnological tools supported management of pathogens against whom resistant source is not available in cultivated species. Therefore, the IDM course is designed to give a clear picture of plant pathogens; processes of disease development; management of some important cereals, pulses, fruits, vegetables and oilseed diseases; and approaches of plant disease management utilizing genomics and biotechnological tools.
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