IFIP Glossary of Terms Used in Production Control
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Ifip Glossary Of Terms Used In Production Control Burbidge J L
The models involved in the Digital Home use case as well as the process involving them are depicted in Figure UC4. The design of the interaction with the Story Editor and of the templates for the generated pages derives from the representation of tasks in the form of patterns composed by specific task trees.
The specific composition of the presentation container will depend on the type of story to be presented, as prescribed by the Task Model, where either an individual component or a container is associated with each task.
Designers are no longer required to use a predefined set of basic widgets. Instead, interaction can nowadays be driven by self-designed widgets specifically targeted at some specific user needs or specific application requirements. These Post-WIMP widgets are designed to support different combinations of modes and media and can guarantee a certain quality-in-use upon context changes.
Based on ubiquitous availability of browsers and corresponding standardized W3C technologies Post-WIMP widgets can be easily designed and manipulated e. The fact that the control and appearance of Post-WIMP widgets is designed with a high degree of freedom has an impact on MBUID approaches: the toolkit and therefore the target of a model transformation can no longer been assumed as static a fixed set of widgets.
Additionally, a statechart-based behavior description captures the enhanced interaction capabilities of a Post-WIMP interactor. As an example we consider two use-cases of Post-WIMP interactors running inside a web application: A mixed reality furniture online shop that can be controlled by gestures and supports inter-reality migration of interactors and an interactive music sheet that can be controlled by head movements.
In the web furniture shop, a customer can choose between different furniture and fill up a shopping cart. An augmented reality frame that surrounds the shopping cart allows to seamlessly switch between realities while crossing it during the drag and drop gesture. Figure UC5.
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Figures UC5. After the users has crossed the reality frame of the shopping cart in the browser, the web page changes to the augmented scene enabling her to position the furniture in her own environment. When learning to play a musical instrument, or when playing one, a music sheet is used to give guidance as to how to perform the musical piece. However, as songs become longer and more intricate they may span across several sheets, forcing the player to stop playing to turn the page. Although this may become easier as one becomes more experienced with the instrument, it is a barrier for inexperienced players that can be tackled easily using a different mode to turn the pages other than your hand.
We propose a UI to turn music sheets with simple head movements that can be captured by a basic VGA webcam, a common part of modern notebooks.
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The considered setup is shown in Figure UC5. A head movement mode interactor supports detecting tilting the head to the side, right and left, as the controller to pass to the next page or return to the previous page, respectively. The left side of the figure shows the debugging user interface in that a moving arrow represents the direction of the head movement mirrored. The process starts at the final user interface and identifies interface elements widgets that should be enhanced to be controllable via various modalities, e. Car infotainment systems are currently developed using huge textual specifications that are refined iteratively while parallel being implemented.
This approach is characterized by diverging specifications and implementation versions, change request negotiations and very late prototyping with cost-intensive bug fixing. Number and variety of involved actors and roles lead to a huge gap between what the designers and ergonomists envision as the final version, what they describe in the system specification and how the specification is understood and implemented by the developers. Model-based user interface development could speed up the iterative implementation while reducing implementation efforts due to automatic generation of prototype interfaces.
Different models could be used to establish a formal and efficient communication between designers, functionality specialists e. Navigation, Telephone and Media , developers and other stakeholders. The resulting reduction of development time would make car infotainment systems more competitive and would narrow the gap to innovation cycles in the field of consumer electronics.
Another large aspect of modern car infotainment systems is the quality assurance that is performed by the vendors. The complexity of modern infotainment systems more than different screens and different modalities requires large efforts to develop formal test models on the basis of the system specification.
The test models are then used by the vendor to test the implementation coming from the supplier. This procedure results in another time and cost-intensive gap that could be bridged by performing consistency checks on the models used to generate the infotainment system instead of testing the implementation. Moreover, vehicles and their infotainment systems have to be accessible.
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Even though model-based user interface development could speed up the iterative implementation, a further step is needed to enforce the accessibility of the cars: the description of the user. The key functional requirements to support UI development in the automotive industry include the capacity to:. The models involved in the automotive industry scenario, as well as the process involving them, are depicted in Figure UC6.
Normally developers start with sketches, mock-ups or paper prototypes and iterate. On the basis of mock-ups interaction and graphical designers refine the mock-ups to wireframes and finally develop the graphical design e. In the end the prototypes are manually transferred into a final UI for a specific infotainment system. These include a multi-touch interactive table, a projected display on a wall, an Android SmartPhone, and a kinect to track gestures.
As shown in Figure UC7. Figure UC7. Photo-browser: a dynamic composition of executable and transformable components managed by a dynamic set of interconnected factories a running on different platforms Windows, MacOS X, and Android. Using a wipe gesture over the table provokes the table to shut down. Alice can carry on her task using the wall as a large display and the SmartPhone as a remote controller.
The key functional requirements to support UI migration for photo-browser include the capacity to:. Left Connecting a SmartPhone to the interactive space by laying it down on the interactive table.
IFIP Glossary of Terms Used in Production Control - 1st Edition
The action that the Context Manager must perform has been specified earlier by Alice using an end-user development tool or has been learnt automatically by the ambient space and confirmed by Alice. This sentence is then translated into an Architectural Description Language ADL whose interpretation by a middleware at runtime automatically deploys or stops the appropriate software components.
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The diagram of Figure UC7. The other components are not transformed but are meta-described and dynamically recruited as resources of the platform. The Tourist Web Site TWS provides tourists with information for visiting and sojourning in the Sedan-Bouillon area, including a selection of hotels, camping, and restaurants. Preparing a trip for vacation is an exciting experience when shared by a group of people Figure UC8. However, one single PC screen does not necessarily favor collaborative exploration.
By dynamically logging to the same website with a SmartPhone, users are informed on the SmartPhone that they can distribute the UI components of the site across the interaction resources currently available. Using a form, the user asks for the following configuration: the title of Web pages must appear on the SmartPhone as well as on the PC the title slots are ticked for the two browsers available , whereas the content should stay on the PC whose screen is projected on the wall, and the navigation bar should migrate to the SmartPhone Figure UC8.
Figure UC8. The TWS web site. UI centralized on a PC screen left. The control panel of the meta-UI to distribute the presentation units across the resources of the interactive ambient space right. The lines of the matrix correspond to the pieces of content that can be redistributed, and the columns denote the browsers currently used by the same user. The UI will be reconfigured accordingly. In this example, the function supported by the meta-UI is UI redistribution using a typical form-based interaction technique. The TWS web site when distributed across the resources of the ambient interactive space.