Nanotechnology Enabled In situ Sensors for Monitoring Health
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Printed Electronics in Automotive and Industrial. Printed and Flexible Electronics in Healthcare. Advanced Decorative Systems. Flexible Energy Harvesting Technologies. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energy.
Reflective Displays, Lighting and Smart Glass. Digital Smart Packaging. Prismade - Printed Smart Devices. Hybrid Electronics: Systems and Manufacturing Advances. Organic Electronic Technologies. Printed Electronics Material Advances. Suzhou Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics.
Danish Technological Institute. Printed Electronics Manufacturing Advances. Sensors Keynotes. Bosch Sensortec GmbH. Sensors in Healthcare. Piezoelectric Sensing and Harvesting Reinvented.
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Sheldahl Flexible Technologies Inc. Industrial Sensor Innovations. Terahertz Device Corporation. Flexible, Printed and Large Area Sensors. Sensor Fusion and AI Integration. User Interface Innovations. Cambridge Mechatronics Ltd. Gas Sensing. Wearable Keynotes. Starkey Hearing Technologies. E-textiles - Products and Markets. Twinery Innovations by MAS.
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Loughborough University. It has been inferred that the aromatic and imide units are the key for carbon formation [ ].
Derived from day-to-day hand writing, directly drawing electronics with various instruments has recently become an alternative technique for fabricating low-cost, do-it-yourself sensors. The mixed powder of CNTs and selectors are compressed into a lead and then penciled onto a piece of paper to write an ammonia gas sensor.
The main defect of this technique locates at the demand on rough substrates to generate desquamation of pencil leads. Chinses brush pen, invented in Qin Dynasty of China — BC , is another available writing instrument for sensor fabrication. Similar to paintbrush, the low viscosity ink is firstly soaked into the animal hair bundle and then uniformly delivered onto the substrate by well-controlled handwriting manner. Benefiting from its excellent liquid manipulation, the brush pen can write electronics on various substrates, no need to consider rigidness and surface roughness.
Another typical application of this scheme is writing liquid metals. Accurately controlling the trace thickness and width may be a challenge for this method, though assistant mask and heater can partly solve these problems. Rollerball pen Figure 11 c and fountain pen Figure 11 d also work well in this field with functional inks loaded in their reservoirs [ , , ]. With more sophisticated structures, rollerball pen and fountain pen can write with diverse inks including metal inks, liquid metals and organic mixtures to generate controllable geometries on many substrates, which has been used to realize strain gauge, glucose sensor, phenolic sensor and 3D antennas.
Directly writing electronics with different writing instruments: a Pencil; b Chinses brush pen; c Rollerball pen and d fountain pen.
Continuing progress in the enhancement and combination of these properties has been further exciting the wearable sensors to appear in more healthcare applications. However, some challenges still exit in the systematization, intellectualization and mass production of wearable healthcare devices. Sensor sensitivity, namely the magnitude of electrical response to measured stimulus, is an important parameter for detecting subtle motions and scarce metabolites in human body. Measurement sensitivity can be affected by functional material, sensing mechanism and structural configuration.
The materials with large piezoresistive or piezoelectric coefficient are desired, but employing the individual element of nanostructured materials is not a very favorable candidate. Herein, the enhancement approaches at macro scale are more practical. Linearity characterizes the proportional relationship between output signals and input stimulus, and excellent linearity can simplify the calibration and data processing process.
However, simultaneously promoting sensitivity and linearity is also a great challenge. For example, piezoresistive sensors often exhibit varied GF in different strain ranges, which is induced by the nonlinear heterogeneous deformation. Meantime, capacitive sensors with microstructured dielectric also suffer the similar problem.
Hysteresis and response time are key factors in evaluating sensor dynamical performance.
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Since most body motions are cyclic, a consistent sensing performance in loading and unloading is critical. Normally, capacitive sensors feature a lower hysteresis for its immediate responding to the variation of overlapped area. Meanwhile, piezoresistive devices are declined by the interactive motion between active filler and polymer substrate.
The interfacial binding between filler and substrate is the critical parameter for hysteresis optimization. The interfacial slide under the weak binding hinders the fully recovery of filler position, and results in a high hysteresis behavior. Meanwhile, a weak adhesion is needed to avoid the friction-induced buckling and facture in fillers.
Though the slide can be partially eliminated by low viscoelastic polymer substrate and improved configuration, optimizing hysteresis by novel material and structural engineering is still a large challenge. Response time illustrates the speed to achieve steady response to applied stimulus, and response delay exists in nearly all composite-based sensors because of the viscoelastic property of polymers. Relatively, piezoresistive device needs more time to reestablish percolation network in resistive composites, and thus has a larger response time than others.
The utilization of lower modulus materials can further deteriorate the response speed of resistive sensors. However, the newly developed crack-based piezoresistive sensors feature a favorable response time about 20 ms because of the quick connection and disconnection of cracks upon the loading and offloading of stimuli.
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Thereby, innovative structural engineering can be an effective approach to improve the dynamical performance of wearable sensors. Durability determines the life of sustainably used devices. Firstly, cyclic stability represents sensor endurance to periodic loading-offloading cycles. The sensitive films coated on substrate usually suffers cyclic instable problem, in which buckling, facture and even stripping often appear after numerous cycles.
This phenomenon also appears in crack-based piezoresistive sensors because of the additional propagation of sensing cracks [ , ]. On the contrary, the composite-based sensors usually feature excellent cyclic stability, and can maintain their characters after 10, cycles. For electrochemical sensors, the supply of reaction reagent directly determines sensor durability.