Polyolefin Fibres: Industrial and Medical Applications (Woodhead Publishing in Textiles)
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He is a senior member of both the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the American Society of Textile Chemists and Colorists, as well as being a member of several other leading associations. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website.
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Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Editors: S C O Ugbolue. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: Woodhead Publishing. Published Date: 28th January Page Count: View all volumes in this series: Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices.
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Polyolefin Fibres: Industrial and Medical Applications (Woodhead Publishing in Textiles)
Reviews the most important polyolefins including polyethylene and polyproplene, their structural and chemical properties as well as production methods Examines methods to improve the functionality of polyolefin fibres including production methods and quality control. Textile technologists, fiber scientists, yarn and fabric manufacturers, those in academia.
Powered by. You are connected as. Adequate mechanical properties maximum breaking tenacity: 3. Yan an co-workers used chitin nanocrystal ChiNC as nanofiller to reinforce CS fibers spun according to , leading to increased mechanical properties [ ]. Chitosan microfibers reinforced by chitin nanofibrils were studied by Yudin et al.
The incorporation of 0. Toskas and colleagues successfully developed an industrial-scale process to generate pure chitosan multifibers Fig.
They dissolved up to 8. CS in aqueous acetic solutions. The fiber diameter could be adjusted from Tensile strength of Woven and knitted fabrics with adequate mechanical properties could be manufactured [ 51 ]. Textile scaffolds made of these CS fibers were tested in vitro, yielding promising results for further use in TE applications [ 47 , ].
Chitosan-based hyaluronic acid fibers were developed by Yamane et al [ ]. They used spinning dopes of 3. Hyaluronic acid HA was added in an aqueous methanol solution coagulation bath. CS-HA fibers showed higher tensile strengths This fiber-type was used for the fabrication of 3D woven scaffolds [ ]. Implantation into cartilage defects in rabbits led to regeneration of hyaline-like cartilage [ , ]. Similar to collagen fibers, the successful works on chitosan fiber development call for intensified studies about their in vivo behavior in order to utilizing fibrous chitosan structures as scaffolds for TE and in situ TE applications.
Silk fibroin-based scaffolds have been used in various TE and in situ TE applications [ ]. To elude these problems which come along with the use of biospun fibers, extensive research has been put on the development of wet-spinning techniques for regenerated silk fibers. The fabrication of regenerated silk fibroin RSF fibers is a challenging subject. Critical factors are the molecular weight and concentration of silk fibroin [ ], the solvent system [ , ], the solidification rate of the spinning dope [ ], the post-drawing ration [ ] and the preservation of flexibility in the dry state [ ].
Their biocompatibility may be improved by adding calcium chloride to the spinning solution [ ]. Due to the limited availability from natural sources, recombinant production is especially attractive for spider silk proteins [ ].
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Synthetic recombinant Major Ampullate spider silk fibers were produced by self-assembly [ — ] or wet-spinning [ — ]. There are studies about the recombinant production and subsequent fiber-spinning of other proteins than silk fibroins, e. Those materials could be used to create novel fibers with favorable properties for their use in regenerative medicine.
However, these attempts had limited success regarding the mechanical properties of the fibers. Fiber science provides useful techniques for the incorporation of functional substances into scaffolds. Much research has been conducted on drug-loading and release of fibers [ — ] and fiber based scaffolds [ ].
The use of hollow fibers with interconnected micro-pores through the fiber wall has been studied for TE applications [ ]. Fiber surfaces can be functionalized with a diversity of nano- and micro-particles in order to improve certain scaffold properties [ , ]. The available techniques for fiber functionalization and drug-release could also be used for the incorporation and sustained release of biological cues such as stem cell homing factors into fibrous architectures.
The possible mechanisms for the loading of fibers with biological cues are discussed in detail elsewhere [ 62 ]. Despite the manifold possibilities to functionalize fibers, the only aqueous coatings [ — ] and gels [ 48 , 63 , ] have been used for the incorporation of biological cues into textile scaffolds. Effective stem-cell recruitment by coating a technique was achieved by Erggelet et al. They prepared cell-free scaffolds by cutting commercially available non-wovens of polyglycolic acid PGA into the desired shape and soaking them with hyaluronic acid. Directly prior to implantation into full-thickness articulate cartilage defects of merino sheep, the scaffolds were soaked in autologous sheep serum which served as chemo-attractant.
Three months after implantation, the formation of a cell-rich repair tissue of cartilaginous appearance was observed. The authors conclude that the scaffold allows the in situ recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells MSCs by serum as a chemo-attractant and subsequent guidance of the progenitor cells towards formation of cartilage repair tissue [ ].
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A similar scaffold system PGA non-woven soaked with hyaluronic acid and allogenic serum was used for the regeneration of the intervertebral disc in rabbits [ ]. In another study, coating of knitted polyester vascular grafts with fibronectin FN and the stem cell homing factor SDF-1 alpha led to positive results [ ].
As these findings suggest, coating is a rather simple technique that can easily be used directly prior to implantation, but it comes along with the limitation that the biological cue is only present on the fiber-surface, which impedes time-dependent release kinematics. Hydrogels may be used for local release of biological cues. For the regeneration of anterior cruciate ligament ACL defects in rabbits, Kimura et al. The authors observed significant bone regeneration around the scaffold in the bone tunnel, which could have been supported by enhanced cell migration due to local bFGF release Fig.
Shen and co-workers developed a bioactive scaffold made of knitted silk and a collagen sponge with incorporated cell homing factor SDF-1 alpha [ 48 ]. This scaffold for Achilles tendon regeneration led to a reduction of inflammatory cells, SDF-1 alpha caused increased selective recruitment of fibroblast-like cells. Four weeks post-surgery, enhanced local endogenous SDF-1 alpha and extracellular matrix ECM production was registered [ 48 ]. The described findings show that the incorporation of biological cues into textile scaffolds for in situ TE can lead to favorable outcomes.
With the help of available fiber functionalization techniques, a broader range of substances could be incorporated and programmable release kinetics of biological cues from degradable fibers could be realized. This section gives an overview on recent studies in which fibrous scaffolds are used for in situ TE applications. A focus is put on the textile substrates and their incorporation into the scaffold system. Only the most important features of the different manufacturing techniques are discussed in order to point out their benefits for their use as cell-free scaffolds.
With knitting technology, three-dimensionally net-shaped geometries are easily realizable [ — ]. Due to their highly ordered loop-structure [ ], knitted fabrics are generally more elastic than woven or braided structures.
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Using different knitting techniques and patterns e. This section describes successful studies using knitted cell-free scaffolds, undermining the versatility and suitability of knitting technology for the fabrication of cell-free scaffolds. A scaffold design based on the requirements of the target cell niche, by logically combining different manufacturing techniques and materials, was realized by Quigley et al.
It was found that the aligned PLGA fibers support guided Schwann cell migration and neuron outgrowth [ 63 ].
This study shows that intelligent scaffold design that combines different manufacturing techniques, together with the incorporation of biological factors, can lead to favorable results. However, with the availability of more appropriate biomaterial fibers, the outcomes could be further improved. The elastic structure of knits is useful where structures that have to adapt to size changes are required.
Matsumara et al. The initial strength of 9. The scaffolds adapted their shapes after implantation, which is an important feature for its targeted use in pediatric surgery [ , ]. The authors also point out the cost-effective and time-saving procedure compared to a cell-based approach using the same biodegradable scaffold system which was already tested in clinical trials [ , ]. However, the scaffold design was not optimized for the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Mechanical stability and elasticity are among the most important scaffold-features for skin regeneration [ 54 ].