### Status, Future Devel. of Modular HTGR Technology (IAEA TECDOC-1198)

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### Small & Modular Reactor (SMR) Related Links and Resources

Atomic Energy. Light is shed on questions concerning the application of a direct closed gas-turbine cycle for generating electricity in a nuclear power plant with HTGR. The choice of the configuration of the reactor system is substantiated. Approaches to solving the problems studied are elucidated on the basis of a modular helium reactor with a GT-MGR gas turbine. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Substantiation of the parameters and layout solutions for an energy conversion unit with a gas-turbine cycle in a nuclear power plant with HTGR.

Authors Authors and affiliations A. Vasyaev V. In the original meter, a recuperator, a pre-cooler, and a heater. The turbine design, the PBMR power conversion unit has a 3-shaft and the compressor have a single stage and four stages, vertical arrangement including a LP turbo-unit, HP turbo- respectively, with a nominal pressure ratio of 1. The unit, and a power turbine with a generator, as shown in Fig. Each rotor is housed in each vessel. This necessitates 1. Transient smaller capacity of the axial magnetic bearing and its tests are planned: start-up, shutdown, load change, loss of associated catcher bearing, small temperature and pressure load, and emergency shutdown.

The issues raised in the vertical multi-shaft configuration are cost problems, an overspeed problem in the case of load 3. For closed cycle gas turbines, helium is considered a As a result, the turbomachinery configuration was promising working fluid because it has many favorable modified to a single-shaft horizontal arrangement that has a aspects for HTGR application. Helium is an inert gas that rotational speed of 6, rpm with a reduction gear to 3, is non-corrosive and does not become radioactive.

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The rpm for the generator. The choice of working fluid significantly influences not only the cycle efficiency 3.

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Additionally, the heat exchanger design also is advantageous because the thermal The gas turbine cycle of the GTHTR is designed to generate MWe power for MW reactor thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient for helium are higher than those for air. On the other hand, helium leakage could easily occur due to its low molecular weight and thus reliable sealing of the system is imperative. As outlined above, HTGR helium gas turbines differ from other gas turbines using air or combustion gases.

High pressure operation is needed to achieve a compact power conversion system in the HTGR. The helium gas turbines have high hub-to-tip ratios throughout the machine because the rotational speed is restricted to the synchronous speed when the turbomachines are directly connected to the gener- ator. A comparison of the design parameters between air- breathing compressors and HTGR helium compressors is given in Table 2 [].

Although helium compressors are operated at a low pressure ratio, the specific heat and specific heat ratio are high, and consequently the compressor needs Fig. A single- shaft horizontal arrangement is adopted, as shown in Fig. The stage compressor requires MW with a pressure ratio of 2. The turbine is a 6-stage unit with a pressure ratio of 1.

The electric generator converts MW shaft power input into MW electric output at The rated rotational speed of the rotor system is 3, rpm. The low cycle pressure ratio simplifies the gas turbine mechanical design with optimum cycle without an intercooler. This configuration minimizes research and development work, and is very effective in Fig.

Cross-section of the GTHTR Turbomachine terms of protecting against overspeed of the rotor in the case of load rejection. Its drawback is the requirement of a larger building area for the horizontal turbine vessel and associated rotor space.

The turbomachine and generator vertical single shaft configuration at a synchronous rotational rotors are rigidly connected by a coupling that provides speed of 3, rpm [6]. The turbo-compressor rotor consists transmission of torque between these rotors. Empirical loss models for the compressor and turbine are also required to reflect viscous effects, which play an important part in evaluating the performance of a gas turbine.

Denton, the total acceleration of a fluid particle aq in the direction of the unit vector q can be given as follows: 1 The momentum equation applied in the stream surface in the direction of q is then 2 Therefore, the equation for the gradient in the direction of the quasi-orthogonal in the meridional surfaces is Fig. Plant Layout of the GT-MHR 3 This equation is called the radial equilibrium equation and ssors require MW, the turbine power produces about is the basis of all throughflow calculation methods.

The first MW, and the power generation is MW.

The issues raised in the vertical single-shaft confi- Equation 3 must be solved in conjunction with the guration are a shaft vibration problem, the large capacity continuity equation as follows: requirement of the axial magnetic bearing and its associated catcher bearing, and large temperature and pressure varia- tions. Axisymmetric throughflow calculations are an essential part of the conceptual design and analysis of gas turbines.

## Small Modular Reactor Market Outlook

Denton [9] with applicability to a wide A typical stage of an axial-flow compressor is shown in range of geometries. The total enthalpy increases in the Fig. The process through the rotor and stator can be assumed to be adiabatic, 7 and there is an increase in stagnation pressure only within the rotor and a decrease in the stagnation pressure in the stator due to fluid friction. By applying the steady flow This input energy is absorbed usefully in raising the pre- energy equation to the rotor, the power input is given by ssure of the fluid, and the pressure rise is dependent on the efficiency of the compression process.

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The stage pressure ratio is given by 5 There is no work input in the stator and thus the stagnation 8 temperatures of positions 2 and 3 are the same. The fluid approaches where S,C is the isentropic efficiency of compressor. The fluid is deflected through the rotor, and the fluid Fig. Considering Similarly, the flow of a streamline enters the rotor at one the blade speed, the velocity V2 is given at an angle 2. The tangential velocities V 1 and V 2, are found from the The change in angular momentum in passing the rotor meridional velocity Vm and the flow angles, and these comes from the enthalpy decrease [10].

The process through tangential velocities can produce a change in enthalpy the rotor and stator is adiabatic, and the stagnation pressure through work transfer. An increase of total enthalpy is decreases in the stator due to fluid friction. There is a obtained from the Euler turbomachine equation along the decrease in stagnation pressure only within the rotor. There streamlines as follows: is no work in the stator and hence the stagnation tempera- tures of positions 1 and 2 are the same.

By applying the 6 steady flow energy equation to the rotor, the power input is given by Therefore, the power input to the stage can be expressed 9 The velocity vectors and associated velocity diagram for Fig. Typical Axial-flow Compressor Stage Fig. The fluid is deflected through the rotor and leaves the rotor with a relative velocity W3 at 3, and the velocity V3 is given at an angle 3.