What the Apothecary Ordered: Questionable Cures Through the Ages

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The reason was that:. Unethical human subject research , and killing of patients with disabilities, peaked during the Nazi era, with Nazi human experimentation and Aktion T4 during the Holocaust as the most significant examples. Many of the details of these and related events were the focus of the Doctors' Trial.

Subsequently, principles of medical ethics , such as the Nuremberg Code , were introduced to prevent a recurrence of such atrocities. In Unit , Japanese doctors and research scientists conducted large numbers of vivisections and experiments on human beings, mostly Chinese victims. Starting in World War II, DDT was used as insecticide to combat insect vectors carrying malaria , which was endemic in most tropical regions of the world. In Liberia, for example, the United States had large military operations during the war and the U.

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In the early s, the project was expanded to nearby villages. In , the World Health Organization WHO launched an antimalaria program in parts of Liberia as a pilot project to determine the feasibility of malaria eradication in tropical Africa.

However these projects encountered a spate of difficulties that foreshadowed the general retreat from malaria eradication efforts across tropical Africa by the mids. The World Health Organization was founded in as a United Nations agency to improve global health. In most of the world, life expectancy has improved since then, and was about 67 years as of [update] , and well above 80 years in some countries. Eradication of infectious diseases is an international effort, and several new vaccines have been developed during the post-war years, against infections such as measles , mumps , several strains of influenza and human papilloma virus.

The long-known vaccine against Smallpox finally eradicated the disease in the s, and Rinderpest was wiped out in Eradication of polio is underway. Tissue culture is important for development of vaccines. Though the early success of antiviral vaccines and antibacterial drugs, antiviral drugs were not introduced until the s. As infectious diseases have become less lethal, and the most common causes of death in developed countries are now tumors and cardiovascular diseases , these conditions have received increased attention in medical research.

What the Apothecary Ordered: Questionable Cures Through the Ages (Old House)

Tobacco smoking as a cause of lung cancer was first researched in the s, but was not widely supported by publications until the s. Cancer treatment has been developed with radiotherapy , chemotherapy and surgical oncology. Oral rehydration therapy has been extensively used since the s to treat cholera and other diarrhea-inducing infections. The sexual revolution included taboo-breaking research in human sexuality such as the and Kinsey reports , invention of hormonal contraception , and the normalization of abortion and homosexuality in many countries.

Family planning has promoted a demographic transition in most of the world. With threatening sexually transmitted infections , not least HIV , use of barrier contraception has become imperative. The struggle against HIV has improved antiretroviral treatments. X-ray imaging was the first kind of medical imaging , and later ultrasonic imaging , CT scanning , MR scanning and other imaging methods became available.

Genetics have advanced with the discovery of the DNA molecule, genetic mapping and gene therapy. Stem cell research took off in the s decade , with stem cell therapy as a promising method. Evidence-based medicine is a modern concept, not introduced to literature until the s. Prosthetics have improved. In , Arne Larsson in Sweden became the first patient to depend on an artificial cardiac pacemaker. He died in at age 86, having outlived its inventor, the surgeon, and 26 pacemakers.


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Lightweight materials as well as neural prosthetics emerged in the end of the 20th century. Cardiac surgery was revolutionized in as open-heart surgery was introduced for the first time since In Joseph Murray , J. Hartwell Harrison and others accomplished the first kidney transplantation. Transplantations of other organs, such as heart, liver and pancreas, were also introduced during the later 20th century. The first partial face transplant was performed in , and the first full one in By the end of the 20th century, microtechnology had been used to create tiny robotic devices to assist microsurgery using micro-video and fiber-optic cameras to view internal tissues during surgery with minimally invasive practices.

Laparoscopic surgery was broadly introduced in the s. Natural orifice surgery has followed. Remote surgery is another recent development, with the Lindbergh operation in as a groundbreaking example. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of human medicine. For the book, see A History of Medicine. For the history of veterinary medicine, see History of veterinary medicine. Main article: Prehistoric medicine.

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Further information: Babylonian medicine. Main article: Ancient Egyptian medicine.

Main articles: Ayurveda , Unani , and Siddha medicine. Main article: Traditional Chinese medicine. Main article: Medicine in ancient Greece. Main articles: Medicine in ancient Rome and Medical community of ancient Rome. Main articles: Byzantine medicine and Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. Main article: Medicine in the medieval Islamic world. Main article: Medieval medicine of Western Europe. Further information: Paracelsianism.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Women in medicine.

Further information: History of psychiatry. Main article: Public health. Main article: History of malaria. Health care in the United States History of dental treatments History of herbalism History of hospitals History of medicine in Canada History of medicine in the United States History of nursing History of pathology History of pharmacy History of surgery Thomas Clifford Allbutt [] Timeline of nursing history Timeline of medicine and medical technology History of health care disambiguation.

Neanderthal healthcare in social context". World Anthropology. The British Museum Press. Ancient Mesopotamia: New Perspectives. Witchcraft, Magic, and Divination in Ancient Mesopotamia. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East. Retrieved Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Israel's Divine Healer. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

Biggs Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. Archived from the original on In Horstmanshoff, H. Studies in Ancient Medicine.

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Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Daily Life. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. The Histories.